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Disney’s animated film Frozen was inspired by Saami culture, and for its sequel, Frozen 2, Walt Disney Animation Studios received consultation from a Saami working group (“Verddet”) on elements within the film that are inspired by the Indigenous people’s homelands. As a result, the film has also been dubbed into North Saami. We spoke to Christina Henriksen from the Saami Council about Saami elements in Frozen 2, how Saami culture was represented in an appropriate way, and what is means to a Saami audience to have a version of the movie in their mother tongue.
 
What is Saami about Frozen 2?

Without spoiling too much of the content, obviously there are a lot of elements in Frozen 2, or Jikŋon 2 as it is called in Saami, that are recognizable for a Saami audience. For me, the Saami way of thinking comes forward in parts of the movie. Some of the dresses are inspired by our traditional clothing, and the Northuldra people have similarities to Saami reindeer herders. There are many other elements that you might recognize if you are familiar with the Saami culture. Hopefully, watching Frozen 2 will make viewers curious about Saami and Indigenous peoples’ culture, and further seek knowledge.

How were you able to ensure that these elements were culturally appropriate?

One of the reasons why the Saami Council and the Saami Parliaments contacted Disney after Frozen 1, was to make sure that our culture and our history would be presented in an appropriate way. After receiving a positive response from the Walt Disney Animations Studios, we therefore established a cooperation group, which included representatives of the Saami Council and Saami Parliaments, Saami film institutions, and legal advisors. Through the cooperation between our group with Walt Disney Animation Studios, we could ensure that things were carried out on a proper way.

Was this consultation process not in place of the first part of Frozen?

Frozen 1 was inspired by Saami culture, I think we can say that. Disney representatives had travelled to Sápmi and been inspired, they had also talked to Saami people. But this time, for Frozen 2, it was the first time that there were actual negotiations, resulting in an agreement, and an organized cooperation with representatives from different parts of the Saami community and the Disney filmmakers.

What does this cooperation mean to Saami people?

The fact that the movie is dubbed into North Saami means a lot to the Saami audience especially to kids, who are now able to watch a popular movie like this in their own language. Another part of the agreement included a trainee program. We have just received 21 applications from Saami youth to become trainees in the Disney Animation Studios – this is a wonderful opportunity for our creative talents. Also the Saami film environment, including Saami synchronization, experienced growth after the cooperation. Thus, we have learned that it is possible to establish a respectful and constructive dialogue with large commercial corporations.

Do you think the movie can raise awareness about Indigenous peoples?

Yes, I think after making the movie Moana, in which Indigenous cultures of the Pacific were displayed in a contest manner, Disney may have realized that involving Indigenous peoples from the beginning might be a beneficial working method. These movies are a way of telling our stories – although they obviously are fictional. Frozen 2 is not necessarily a story from Sápmi, but through our cooperation we could ensure we were not culturally appropriated.
 

The Arctic Frontiers is an annual conference held in Tromsø, Norway, at the end of January. This year’s conference will focus on the theme “Power of knowledge” and takes place from 26-30 January 2020. The conference started out in 2006 assembling a global scientific summit on economic, societal and environmentally sustainable growth in the Arctic region. Arctic Frontiers has a pan-arctic perspective and builds new partnerships across nations, generations and ethnic groups. Participants from more than 35 countries joined the gathering in Tromsø in January 2019.
 
Located in the hometown of the Arctic Council Secretariat, the Arctic Council has an active presence at the conference, including a side event on blue bioeconomy, a movie screening of THE GRIZZLIES, and a media tour. Here is a list of Arctic Council related events during Arctic Frontiers.
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A source for Arctic optimism: The Blue Bioeconomy

Date and Time: Tuesday, 28 January 2020, 16:15-17:45
 
The blue bioeconomy has the potential to be a major contributor to achieving sustainable development in the Arctic and beyond. The term “blue bioeconomy” refers to sustainably maximising the value and use of aquatic bioresources using innovative processing methods. It is a source for great optimism for the circumpolar region.
Today, estimates reveal that up to 43% of captured fish and shellfish resources end up either as wastage or discarded material. This means that companies are throwing away 43% of the biomass that could potentially generate substantial profits by developing methods for turning “waste” into high value products for food, feed, bio-products and bioenergy sectors. The blue bioeconomy is a kind of back to basics thinking in the sense that it revolves around making the most of available resources, and maximizing the value of and revenue from marine catches while minimizing waste and negative environmental impacts of marine operations.
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The Arctic Council, its Sustainable Development Working Group and Global Affairs Canada are pleased to invite you to a screening of the movie THE GRIZZLIES, which was shown as part of this year’s Tromsø International Film Festival. The drama is based on a true story and depicts a youth lacrosse team that was set up to engage and motivate young people in the community of Kugluktuk, Nunavut – a community suffering under an epidemic of youth suicides.

The movie tackles a sensitive topic that is important for Northern communities across the Arctic – and has been an important focus area of the Arctic Council for several years under the leadership of its Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG). In cooperation with SWDG and Global Affairs Canada, the Arctic Council thus has decided to raise awareness about elevated suicide rates in the Arctic – especially amongst young people –during Arctic Frontiers.
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Journalists attending the Arctic Frontiers Conference 2020 in Tromsø, Norway, are invited to an exclusive tour of the FRAM - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, and a selection of the institutions located within the Fram Centre building – including the Arctic Council Secretariat, the Arctic Contaminants Action Program, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. The FRAM Centre is Tromsø’s hub for polar matters and offers an interdisciplinary environment for researchers and practitioners to address some of the main challenges affecting Arctic ecosystems and communities.
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The Arctic is experiencing some of the fastest rates of ocean acidification with potentially severe implications for the ecosystem and communities dependent on these. To raise awareness on acidifying waters and to bring state-of-the-art knowledge on the issue to a global arena, the Arctic Council organized a side event “All aboard! Tackling polar ocean acidification” at the COP25 in Madrid.

The side event was led by the Icelandic Chairmanship, organized in cooperation with the Council’s Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) Working Group, and hosted in the Cryosphere Pavilion. It brought together leading international acidification experts for a one and a half hour briefing on the chemical, biological, and socio-economic impacts of acidifying waters in the North – and what can be done to tackle the issue.

Iceland’s Minister for the Environment and Natural Resources, HE. Guðmundur Ingi Guðbrandsson, opened the side event and highlighted his country’s close ties to its surrounding waters. “Iceland takes any changes in the marine environment very seriously. Fisheries are a main pillar of Iceland’s economy. So, any threats to the Arctic marine ecosystem is of concern to Icelandic society”, he stated in his opening.

Ocean acidification in Arctic waters is widespread and rapid, and while the Arctic Ocean as a whole can be considered as especially vulnerable, the effects of acidifying waters are not uniform across the Arctic. “For the AMAP Arctic Ocean Acidification Assessment 2018 we developed five regional case studies and found that effects and impacts on communities vary across the Arctic. Findings such as the potential reduction in sustainable harvest of the Barents Sea cod stocks by the end of the century are severe – not just for the region but on a global scale”, said Rolf Rødven, executive secretary of AMAP.

AMAP’s assessment was recently backed up by the special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate. “The AMAP and IPCC reports present complimentary messages on ocean acidification in the high latitudes. Similar as in the rest of the world, ocean acidification is progressing as a result of continued carbon emissions. However, the polar oceans are especially vulnerable to atmospheric emissions because colder seawater naturally absorbs a larger fraction of CO2”, Ko Barrett, Vice-Chair of the IPCC, stated at the side event.

The ocean has absorbed around one fourth of the carbon dioxide emitted through the burning of fossil fuels globally. Yet, this important role as carbon sink is imperilled. “Ocean acidification is diminishing the ocean’s role in taking up CO2. For every step acidification advances, the ability of the ocean to take up more CO2 becomes smaller and therefor the potential for future global warming increases”, explained Prof Richard Bellerby, from the East China Normal University and Norwegian Institute for Water Research, and Chair of AMAP’s 2018 assessment.

While some marine organisms might benefit from a higher concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide, such as algae, the negative impacts are very likely to outweigh any positive effects, as attendees of the side event learned. “It is complicated because ocean acidification does not happen in isolation. There are multiple stressors affecting life in the Arctic Ocean, such as warming waters, the loss of sea ice and

the inflow of freshwater from melting glaciers. However, generally speaking we see and expect a lot more negative impacts”, said Dr Helen Findlay from the Plymouth Marine Laboratory.

These effects will particularly be felt by societies that are closely linked to the Arctic marine environment – including many Indigenous coastal communities across the Arctic. “The food-web in the Arctic ocean is very sensitive, so a significant increase in the population of one species or the disappearance of another could have dramatic dripple effects on the entire Arctic marine ecosystem and we Inuit are a part of this ecosystem”, stated Lisa Koperqualuk, Vice President of International Affairs for the Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada.

In a society that is intricately linked to the marine biodiversity, ocean acidification alters not just the chemistry of the waters, but also livelihoods, cultures, identities and languages. Ko Barrett thus urged the audience to view the effects of ocean acidification in the context of what this means to people in the Arctic – and beyond. “The changes that are documented in the Arctic are sweeping and severe. And while not experienced directly by much of the earth’s population, these changes are important all across the globe. These changes to the remote areas show that even – and especially there – human induced warming and ocean change is evident. This is a clear call to action,” she said in closing her intervention at the side event.

In order to base that action on the best available knowledge, AMAP is continuing its work on ocean acidification and is broadening the perspective to take multiple stressors into account that impact life in the Arctic Ocean.

 

Background information about the Arctic Council’s side event at COP25:

The side event was held on 9 December 13:00-14:30 in the Cryosphere Pavilion at the COP25 in Madrid. A recording of the full event and interviews with the speakers are available on the Arctic Council Vimeo channel.

Agenda

Opening remarks – Icelandic Minister for the Environment and Natural Resources, HE. Mr. Guðmundur Ingi Guðbrandsson

Expert Panel

  • Ko Barrett, Vice-Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: The IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere.
  • Prof. Richard Bellerby, Director of the SKLEC-NIVA Centre for Marine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, China, and Lead researcher at the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Norway: Key findings of the AMAP Arctic Ocean Acidification report
  • Dr. Helen Findlay, Biological oceanographer at Plymouth Marine Laboratory: The impacts of ocean acidification on Arctic species and ecosystems
  • Lisa Koperqualuk, Vice President of International Affairs for the Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada: The effects of ocean acidification on Inuit communities

Outlook – Dr. Rolf Rødven, Executive Secretary of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP): Summary of key points from presentations and overview of ongoing and upcoming work by AMAP related to ocean acidification

Moderator: Ambassador Stefán Skjaldarson, Arctic Council Chairmanship Iceland